wooden key-levers., and metalized key-top and finger-key stem.

Patents of American Writing Machine says:
  • In the drawings, A represents a type-writer key-lever, generally made of a strip Of wood,
  • the finger-key stem d.  may be metal.
  • The finger-key D is made of a bottom metallic disk,


It might be caused by carriage jump but in different.


And the far-left "A" just looks like the carriage jumped the margin when it was returned.

Yahoo! Groups
It might be caused by carriage jump but in a different way we now see.

The days when Sholes penciled "Is this paper thick enough?" and just ahead when he had typed out this letter to Densmore on October maybe18th, 1869,,

In those days, it seems they didn't have side moving roller carriage in longitude along the line out-printing mechanism.(Later they had as on Scientific American August 10th 1872.)


The mechanism they had a patent as cylindrical platen earlier was for moving in circumferential direction along the circular out-printing on the rotating cylindrical platen,
not for longitudal direction line printing.

If using their early cylindrical platen mechanism, then the incidents like carriage jump would rare happen.

And to roll up the cardboard might be hard to bend to set on the platen.

Sholes typed a letter to Densmore. Oct. 28 is not be accurate, and might be 18, 1869, on cardboard an eighth of an inch thick, and added a penciled note in which he triumphantly asked, " Is this paper thick enough?

eight inch thick cardboard Sholes Densmore - Google book search

So I guess the carriage jump might happen on an old model machine which made over adding with mechanism changed to like ink-ribbon winding in downward, or so.

But I should know more detail how paper had attached round on the cylindorical platen on these days of Sholes.


If 1/8-inch! Is the paper too thick enough to roll along platen?

The letter which Sholes penciled "Is this paper thick enough?" hears a cardboard of an eighth of an inch thick.

Sholes typed a letter to Densmore. Oct. 28 is not be accurate, and might be 18, 1869, on cardboard an eighth of an inch thick, and added a penciled note in which he triumphantly asked, " Is this paper thick enough?

eight inch thick cardboard Sholes Densmore - Google book search

APKY(Associate Professor Koichi Yasuoka) might think in a book(cf. Koichi Yasuoka and Motoko Yasuoka: Myth of QWERTY Keyboard, NTT Publishing, Tokyo (2008)):
  • the letter on Oct. 18th 1870 was typed on a similar model of machine of the patent No.118491 by Sholes,
    1. with the paper attached roll-up around on the platen, .
    2. (or the cardboard put as flat and weighed by the roller
      but this is funny cause the roller could run around only in one way..

I guess another alternative possibility:
Sholes might just only change the setting way of ink-ribbon rolled-downward, on old-type-machine, for testing..
and set the ink-ribbon under the surface of cardboard that Sholes typed at. 20110520211015


Some words seem left on a paper, of Clough or Jenne..

What words were left on the paper around platen? Do you read?

They've got digitized noise, and lost details of the original when google? degitezed.
If you could reach the analogue data of the drawings..
Are they some message that Clough or Jenne left? or so nothing?


It hears that Schwalbach had done the four-bank keyboard and handed it to Sholes around the spring of 1871.

I have a quick question about some terminology I've heard. I've heard some
machines referred to as 1, 2, 3, or 4 bank machines--what exactly does this
The saying of Schwalbach hears as follows:


his criticisms annoyed sholes but impelled him to go on making improvements the inventor soon adopted a new keyboard of Schwalbach's devising which consisted of four rows of metal key levers and buttons set in ascending banks.[18]

[18] Schwalbach afterwards said that " while he continued to work for Mr. Sholes for $3.00 a day during the winter of 1870 he took up the work independently in his home he worked out the four-bank key board and in the spring of 1871 he laid his completed model before messrs sholes and glidden howard in typewriter topics 3:8

Matthias? double TT? W(^O^)V    (T-T)  (。>_<)

Who was Mathias Schalbach? - bakana raycy - KliologY:
Koichi Yasuoka and Motoko Yasuoka: "On the Prehistory of QWERTY", ZINBUN, No.42 (March 2011), pp.161-174).
In "On the Prehistory of QWERTY(OPQ)"(Mar. 2011), they write 'Matthias Schwalbach.'
("Matthias"|マチアス)(Schwalbach|シュバル) ("Koichi Yasuoka"|"Yasuoka Koichi"|"KoichiYasuoka"|安岡孝一) -raycy - Google Search:

Current(2001, might also be in1977,) writes 'Mathias.'
(First Illinois paperback,2001. CC.© 1977 by Richard Nelson Current. Reprinted by arrangement with the author)
Matthias Schwalbach inauthor:Current - Google Search:


wooden key-levers,,

Henry's attic: some fascinating gifts to Henry Ford and his museum

by: Ford Richardson Bryan,Sarah Evans

The Remington desk typewriter shown here, manufactured sometime between 1874 and 1876, has an enclosed case, wooden key levers, a lage wooden platen, and a ribbon wound on wooden spools as wide as the platen.

The Remington Rand Laboratories of Ilion gave the typewriter to Henry Ford. The date of the giftewas not recorded.

typewriter oil, sperm whale, black fish, porpoise..

Journal of the Society of Arts: v 42
Society of Arts (Great Britain) - 1894 -
In a well- made typewriter oil is scarcely ever required, if at all. The parts are so well fitted as to render its use quite unnecessary, and its presence is only likely to give trouble by the oil becoming sticky and collecting dust. Anything but the finest clock oil must be absolutely avoided if an operator desires to keep his machine in order, and it should only be used in the most sparing manner.

40 92 Nye Wm P New Bedford Mass Sewing machine watch and clock oils These oils are obtained from the head of the sperm whale the black fish and porpoise and most carefully refined for the purposes mentioned only during the severest cold of winter T 49 soi


Re: Excuse me.. This is me who sent an opportunistic and mistakable message

Which are we talking about (Type-bars or sub-levers)?

Are we talking about type-bars or sub-levers when making reference to early
Remington or Caligraph type-writers? Not sure I know of such a type-writer.
I believe most all very early Remington and Caligraph type-writers had metal
type-bars and wood sub-levers (something to do with alignment). It would
seem the wood type-bars would soon find themselves out of alignment and thus
would find themselves on a junk pile. Perhaps someone on the list knows of
such a machine. Check with DR.


Re: Excuse me.. This is me who sent and started additional an oppotunistic and mistakable confusing message


My reason why I had started another thread about the material of key-levers
: which is running underneath of the machine from front to rear
is, I think, this will help to make it clear when the four-bank keyboard had done among in the group of Sholes and Schwalbach and fellows.

There was an message

about typebar metal brass or something steel

I took after the message

Re:The wooden key-levers that ran front-to-rear underneath were of a fine-grain wood that had been painted black

I gave my Caligraph away long ago, so I don't know how the keyboard was
arranged. The wooden key-levers that ran front-to-rear underneath were
of a fine-grain wood that had been painted black but most of the paint
had flaked off. The problem with using wood this way is that it would
fail much sooner than metal at the pivot points. But there was no sign
of rot or warping.

What wonderful key-levers of the writing machine running underneath of , hiding fine-gain behind the peint of black.. looks as if lacquered japan..Wow

If they were lacquerd japan, never had flaked off as long as Fukushima nuke was sound and healthy..


Do you ride bicycle?

   __o      __o      o         __o        ,__o      o__,
 _ Y<_     -Y<,    _/Y_>     _`Y<,_     _-Y_<,      ,>_/-_
(_)/(_)   O / O   O,> / O   (*)/ (*)   (*)/'(*)    (*)`Y(*)

    _ /<.

タイプライターアート - 葉仮名raycy - KliologY:

"double up(ie..strike over each other : )" V(^e^)V nor skip ___/

These followings may involve type-bar troubles caused from clashing or so..
Or only from carriage trouble..?

double up(ie..strike over each other : )

It is only the invisible oil that lubricates and the surplus merely catches dust and clogs and retareis the action of the machinery causing the machine to run unnecessarily hard and the letters to "double up" or strike over each other giving rise to the belief that the tensions need altering

Barron "double up"

Remington of Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict says "it does not double up nor skip"
HathiTrust Digital Library - Out West magazine v.12 1899-1900



The article of "USE AND ABUSE.. (something)"[1] says similar thing as Wyckoff[2] says, but not colornized nor Irishush nor Jappipee nor so non..

[1]"WRITING-MACHINES --- THEIR USE AND ABUSE, GENERAL REMARKS", Munson's phonographic news and teacher. v. IV No.1. (1884)

A careful examination by a person with even little mechanical skill will usually disclose the trouble, which in nine cases out of ten will prove to be something other than the necessity for altering the tensions.

Munson's phonographic news - Google books:
[2]Wyckoff, W. O. (Nov. and Dec., 1883). “CARE OF THE TYPE-WRITER”. The Exponent Ⅰ: 225–227.


Invisible arm.. maybe colored's or Irish's.. Remember when evle have happened

He loves it..

Invisible arm.. maybe colored's or Irish's.. Remember when in dis-alignment, out of line, dis-order..

Invisible arm.. maybe colored's or Irish's.. Remember when evil had happened


Does your S&G have a basket of typebars for '3' and '4'adjacent , 'Q' and 'A' adjacent each other? like Associate Professor Koichi Yasuoka shows..

Does your S&G have a basket of typebars for '3' and '4'adjacent, 'Q' and 'A' adjacent each other? like Associate Professor Koichi Yasuoka shows..
Typebar basket of Sholes & Glidden Type-Writer (top view)
posted by Koichi Yasuoka at 2:23 PM Tuesday, April 12, 2011
The Truth of QWERTY

They write a new paper.


Duncan James writes "to avoid adjacent typebars clashing.” (A)Professor Koichi Yasuoka writes "Adjacent typebars?"

I support Darryl Rehr's adjacency theory.
So I support Duncan James's.

Duncan James writes "to avoid adjacent typebars clashing.” (A)Professor Koichi Yasuoka writes "Adjacent typebars?"
How do you read Duncan James of "adjacent typebars"?

Numerals 3 and 4, alphabet A and Q of typebars are adjacent on the type-basket,,,are these right?

Or if the observation is right, the collision risks at total typebasket of adjacent typebars decleased by the Yasuoka distribution from the Dickerson regulation. 


Marusan says "The typebars on upstrike machine also get tangled up."

Marusan says "The typebars on upstrike machine also get tangled up."
I received a letter
Marusan bought a machine which have upstrike mechanism, named Pullman,


Marusan is a man who I introduced once on an article


What is the first commercially succeeded typewriter? Is it different in Denmark or in US?

What is the first commercially succeeded typewriter in the world?
Is it different in Denmark or in US?
THE AMERICAN TYPE WRITER http://www.kanji.zinbun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~yasuoka/QWERTY/1868-11-21.djvu
Writing Ball(1870)
This is a quiz for you in Denmark. Which is the first commercial typewriter in the world?


Frequent letter pairs of adjacent typebars when typebars line in alphabetical order

Frequent letter pairs when typebars lines in alphabetical order




Oops! Sholes call both keylevers and typebars as keys in pat. #118491.

Oops! Sholes call both keylevers and typebars as keys in patent number: 118491.
The key has double meaning for keylever and for typebar in Sholes' patent number: 118491.
S represents a series of keys, pivoted on a fulcrum below the ratchets J K, to reach under and work the types. T represents a slotted disk, fastened above the rear ends of the keys and directly under the main axle B. U represents a series of keys, pivoted in the slots of the disk T so as to strike at a point in the center thereof, directly under the main axle B.


But keys get to jam?, not typebars, if with wire-stringed?

But keys get to jam?, not typebars, if with wire-stringed, like on S&Gs..? I wonder..
Cause wire may able to bend easily if got pressing force.

Some expressions look as : cf. "The keys used to jam", "keys sticking together", "keys to jam"..

I understand if typebars got moving by hard linkage mechanism, like connected with rod or so.
If typebars've got jammed, then that causes keys also get stuck, too.

But when typebars got moved by kick-up, sure even if typebars got stuck, keys can come up back to the normal position with showing almost as if nothing had happened on the end of typebars..

And when if typebars would get motion by wire, also keys can come up back, I guess.

How about on your wireds?
Wouldn't you mind to tell of yours, for me of not owning any wired , please?



What do we want to say with McGurrin vs. Traub?

What do we want to say with McGurrin vs. Traub?
Traub vs. McGurrin: The theme setting,, -- What for?
With help of sight? or not? - The actuality on - QWERTY history:

Off wired of historical thread mystery..

Off wired of historical thread mystery..
Type-basket arrangement historically coming next to "A to Z" order. - The actuality on - QWERTY history:


Sholes & Glidden(S&G) get to JAM , three of them say. 3 parson say "JAM".

(in English)

In short, please look :
Jam reporters of three of them. People who say CLASHING is also a problem: DR,Peter,,, - The actuality on - QWERTY history:
If this is closed, then try following.:

Path dependency?
Scince around autum 2010, I've started trying to have contacts with some antique typewriter owners of having up-strike mechanism.

I remember if that would be the very first time? to try to have a contact with Kikutake college, at Nagoya in Japan.. but, that was not for sure if it jams or not.That was for inquiry of key layouts and type-basket arrangements of typebars.
He APKY*1 have reported typebar arrangement of two S&Gs in
  1. Milwaukee Musium or so and in
  2. Kikutake college, Nagoya, Japan.
Sholes & Glidden Type-Writer and its type basket
posted by Koichi Yasuoka at 11:06 AM, Monday, April 27, 2009.
The Truth of QWERTY: http://yasuoka.blogspot.com/2009/04/i-also-wrote-second-program-nadist-to.html

Those are not prototype but (after) (mass-?)production models, though.

Two of museums have the same arrangement of typebasket machine, which was reported by APKY. And this is what I'm guessing how is wired and connected to keys and keylevers from each typebars.

*1: (Associate) Professor Koichi Yasuoka cf. http://qwerty-history.g.hatena.ne.jp/raycy/20110107/1294382212

I've sent a mail to whom he looks to have up-strike machine, and he read Japanese, but his is look like Yost or so thinking later on.., might have grasshopper mechanism, then it should be litte bit different from ordinary up-strikes.. He said he cannot say much about jamming or not on S&Gs or so..
YOST NO.4 Typewriter
Then I sent mail to Darryl Rehr, who is famous in antique typewriter collectors.
Kindly enough, he sent response mails in several times.
Mr. Darryl Rehr answered to my questions. - The actuality on - QWERTY history:
Then I sent mail to mailing list: TYPEWRITERS@yahoogroups.com ,
that time, Peter Weil reterned some comment.
TYPEWRITERS : Message: Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Sholes & Glidden Type-writer Question:
  • Oops, I've not read much ever about this thread.. I might not.., I'm afraid..
    I've almost missed some of those on this thread?.. Alright, I'll read later on.. I've remember I've read most of them already. Makes me ease..

Again, I've sent mail to TYPEWRITERS@yahoogroups.com ,
this time, Darryl Rehr, Peter Weil, and some others gave comments to the mail link.
TYPEWRITERS : Message: Upstrike Typebars never jam ?:

(in Japanese)
to: http://at-aka.blogspot.com/2010/11/qwerty.html
* http://kunio.sblo.jp/article/38767446.html#comment
* http://yasuoka.blogspot.com/2009/05/with-older-manual-typewriters-each.html#c3849670147015158153
* http://kygaku.g.hatena.ne.jp/raycy/20110111/1294691514


Sholes & Glidden(S&G)タイプライターは絡むという証言を、3人から得ています。


つづき やら 書きかけ at http://kygaku.g.hatena.ne.jp/raycy/20110112/1294769832


alphabetical order nexting bigram frequency in bar chart